Present:UseDescribing routines, regular events or facts, feelings or statesStructure
Signal wordsalways, never, often, seldom, rarely, sometimes, usually, normally, regularly, etc. every day, every week, every month, …Positive statementI walk, she walks, they take, he takesNegative statementI don’t walk, she doesn’t walk, they don’t take, he doesn’t takeQuestionDo I walk? Does she walk? Do they take? Does he take?
- I/you/we/they + Infinitive
- he/she/it + Infinitive + s
Present: Present ProgressiveUseDescribing things that happen at the moment of speech or things that happen exceptionally; talking about a plan that happens in the near futureStructuream/are/is (simple present form of to be) + Infinitive + ingSignal wordsat the moment, right now, just, now, at present, currently, Look!Positive statementI am walking, she is walking, they are taking, he is takingNegative statementI am not walking, she isn't walking, they aren't taking, he isn't takingQuestionAm I walking? Is she walking? Are they taking? Is he taking?
Past: Simple PastUseTalking about things that happened in the past and are completed or over at the moment of speechStructure
Signal wordsyesterday, the other day, in 2009, when, at that time two days ago, a week ago, a month ago, … last night, last week, last month, …Positive statementI walked, she walked, they took, he tookNegative statementI didn't walk, she didn't walk, they didn't take, he didn't takeQuestionDid I walk? Did she walk? Did they take? Did he take?
- Regular verbs: Infinitive + ed
- Irregular verbs: simple past form
Past: Past ProgressiveUseDescribing actions or things that were in progress in the past, even if something else suddenly interrupted this progressStructurewas/were (simple past form of to be) + Infinitive + ingSignal wordswhilePositive statementI was walking, she was walking, they were taking, he was takingNegative statementI wasn't walking, she wasn't walking, they weren't taking, he wasn't takingQuestionWas I walking? Was she walking? Were they taking? Was he taking?
Past: Present Perfect SimpleUseEmphasising the result of something, talking about things that happened at an unknown time in the past, describing things that happened in the past and are not yet completed or over at the moment of speechStructurehave/has (simple present form of to have) + past participleSignal wordssince, for, already, yet, before, ever, never, still not, so far, just, up to now, recently, until nowPositive statementI have walked, she has walked, they have taken, he has takenNegative statementI haven't walked, she hasn't walked, they haven't taken, he hasn't takenQuestionHave I walked? Has she walked? Have they taken? Has he taken?
Past: Present Perfect ProgressiveUseEmphasising the duration of something, describing things that started happening in the past and are still going on at the moment of speech and/or influence the presentStructurehave/has (simple present form of to have) + been + Infinitive + ingSignal wordsfor, since, how long, all day, all day long, the whole day/week/month/yearPositive statementI have been walking, she has been walking, they have been taking, he has been takingNegative statementI haven't been walking, she hasn't been walking, they haven't been taking, he hasn't been takingQuestionHave I been walking? Has she been walking? Have they been taking? Has he been taking?
Past: Past Perfect SimpleUseEmphasising that something in the past stopped or was over when something else began, describing the fact that something happened before a certain timeStructurehad (simple past form of to have) + past participleSignal wordsalready, until that day, never, justPositive statementI had walked, she had walked, they had taken, he had takenNegative statementI hadn't walked, she hadn't walked, they hadn't taken, he hadn't takenQuestionHad I walked? Had she walked? Had they taken? Had he taken?
Past: Past Perfect ProgressiveUseEmphasising the progress or duration of something, describing things that happened in the past and stopped or were over at a certain time later in the pastStructurehad (simple past form of to have) + been + Infinitive + ingSignal wordsfor, since, how long, all day, after, beforePositive statementI had been walking, she had been walking, they had been taking, he had been takingNegative statementI hadn't been walking, she hadn't been walking, they hadn't been taking, he hadn't been takingQuestionHad I been walking? Had she been walking? Had they been taking? Had he been taking?
Future: Will-FutureUseDescribing things that will certainly happen in the future, talking about expectations, hopes or assumptions, spontaneous decisionsStructurewill + InfinitiveSignal wordstomorrow, next week/month/year, in 2021, expect, believe, hope, suppose, think, probablyPositive statementI will walk, she will walk, they will take, he will takeNegative statementI won't walk, she won't walk, they won't take, he won't takeQuestionWill I walk? Will she walk? Will they take? Will he take?
Future: Going-to-FutureUseDescribing plans and aims in the future, implications, talking about things that will happen in the near futureStructuream/are/is (simple present form of to be) + going to + InfinitiveSignal wordstomorrow, next week/month/year, in 2011Positive statementI am going to walk, she is going to walk, they are going to take, he is going to takeNegative statementI am not going to walk, she isn't going to walk, they aren't going to take, he isn't going to takeQuestionAm I going to walk? Is she going to walk? Are they going to take? Is he going to take?
Future: Future ProgressiveUseDescribing things that will be in progress in the future, talking about things that usually happen in the futureStructurewill + be + Infinitive + ingSignal wordstomorrow, next week/month/year, in 2041Positive statementI will be walking, she will be walking, they will be taking, he will be takingNegative statementI won't be walking, she won't be walking, they won't be taking, he won't be takingQuestionWill I be walking? Will she be walking? Will they be taking? Will he be taking?
Future: Future PerfectUseTalking about things that will be completed or over at a certain time in the futureStructurewill + have + past participleSignal wordsuntil, before by the end of the day, by the end of the week, by the end of the month, …Positive statementI will have walked, she will have walked, they will have taken, he will have takenNegative statementI won't have walked, she won't have walked, they won't have taken, he won't have takenQuestionWill I have walked? Will she have walked? Will they have taken? Will he have taken?
Take a look at the following examples:
- Apparently, she had been waiting on that spot for two hours but the bus did not come.
- He told me that he had been spending every minute with her the week before I arrived.
In the next exercise, you have to fill in the gaps with the correct forms of the past perfect progressive. The past perfect progressive is a tense that is not used very often. A case in which you do use it is when you use indirect speech. This is why, in the exercise below, the sentences you have to complete will all be in indirect speech. That doesn't make it any more difficult though – it only makes the context more logical. For example:
Maria told us that he __________ in the kitchen but she thought he had already been gone.
] Maria told us that he had been waiting in the kitchen but she thought he had already been gone.
Go on and try!
In the second exercise, you will find all forms of past tenses. You have to mark the different tenses in different colours. Of course, you can only do that if you have studied all the past tenses already.
Each colour stands for a different tense:
Each colour stands for a different tense:
- simple past: purple
- past progressive: orange
- present perfect: yellow
- present perfect progressive: grey
- past perfect: green
- past perfect progressive: blue