• Present:

     
       
     
    Use
     
    Describing routines, regular events or facts, feelings or states
     
    Structure
     
    • I/you/we/they + Infinitive
    • he/she/it + Infinitive + s
     
    Signal words
     
    always, never, often, seldom, rarely, sometimes, usually, normally, regularly, etc. every day, every week, every month, …
     
    Positive statement
     
    I walk, she walks, they take, he takes
     
    Negative statement
     
    I don’t walk, she doesn’t walk, they don’t take, he doesn’t take
     
    Question
     
    Do I walk? Does she walk? Do they take? Does he take?
     
     
  • Present: Present Progressive

     
       
     
    Use
     
    Describing things that happen at the moment of speech or things that happen exceptionally; talking about a plan that happens in the near future
     
    Structure
     
    am/are/is (simple present form of to be) + Infinitive + ing
     
    Signal words
     
    at the moment, right now, just, now, at present, currently, Look!
     
    Positive statement
     
    I am walking, she is walking, they are taking, he is taking
     
    Negative statement
     
    I am not walking, she isn't walking, they aren't taking, he isn't taking
     
    Question
     
    Am I walking? Is she walking? Are they taking? Is he taking?
     
     
  • Past: Simple Past

     
       
     
    Use
     
    Talking about things that happened in the past and are completed or over at the moment of speech
     
    Structure
     
    • Regular verbs: Infinitive + ed
    • Irregular verbs: simple past form
     
    Signal words
     
    yesterday, the other day, in 2009, when, at that time two days ago, a week ago, a month ago, … last night, last week, last month, …
     
    Positive statement
     
    I walked, she walked, they took, he took
     
    Negative statement
     
    I didn't walk, she didn't walk, they didn't take, he didn't take
     
    Question
     
    Did I walk? Did she walk? Did they take? Did he take?
     
     
  • Past: Past Progressive

     
       
     
    Use
     
    Describing actions or things that were in progress in the past, even if something else suddenly interrupted this progress
     
    Structure
     
    was/were (simple past form of to be) + Infinitive + ing
     
    Signal words
     
    while
     
    Positive statement
     
    I was walking, she was walking, they were taking, he was taking
     
    Negative statement
     
    I wasn't walking, she wasn't walking, they weren't taking, he wasn't taking
     
    Question
     
    Was I walking? Was she walking? Were they taking? Was he taking?
     
     
  • Past: Present Perfect Simple

     
       
     
    Use
     
    Emphasising the result of something, talking about things that happened at an unknown time in the past, describing things that happened in the past and are not yet completed or over at the moment of speech
     
    Structure
     
    have/has (simple present form of to have) + past participle
     
    Signal words
     
    since, for, already, yet, before, ever, never, still not, so far, just, up to now, recently, until now
     
    Positive statement
     
    I have walked, she has walked, they have taken, he has taken
     
    Negative statement
     
    I haven't walked, she hasn't walked, they haven't taken, he hasn't taken
     
    Question
     
    Have I walked? Has she walked? Have they taken? Has he taken?
     
     
  • Past: Present Perfect Progressive

     
       
     
    Use
     
    Emphasising the duration of something, describing things that started happening in the past and are still going on at the moment of speech and/or influence the present
     
    Structure
     
    have/has (simple present form of to have) + been + Infinitive + ing
     
    Signal words
     
    for, since, how long, all day, all day long, the whole day/week/month/year
     
    Positive statement
     
    I have been walking, she has been walking, they have been taking, he has been taking
     
    Negative statement
     
    I haven't been walking, she hasn't been walking, they haven't been taking, he hasn't been taking
     
    Question
     
    Have I been walking? Has she been walking? Have they been taking? Has he been taking?
     
     
  • Past: Past Perfect Simple

     
       
     
    Use
     
    Emphasising that something in the past stopped or was over when something else began, describing the fact that something happened before a certain time
     
    Structure
     
    had (simple past form of to have) + past participle
     
    Signal words
     
    already, until that day, never, just
     
    Positive statement
     
    I had walked, she had walked, they had taken, he had taken
     
    Negative statement
     
    I hadn't walked, she hadn't walked, they hadn't taken, he hadn't taken
     
    Question
     
    Had I walked? Had she walked? Had they taken? Had he taken?
     
     
  • Past: Past Perfect Progressive

     
       
     
    Use
     
    Emphasising the progress or duration of something, describing things that happened in the past and stopped or were over at a certain time later in the past
     
    Structure
     
    had (simple past form of to have) + been + Infinitive + ing
     
    Signal words
     
    for, since, how long, all day, after, before
     
    Positive statement
     
    I had been walking, she had been walking, they had been taking, he had been taking
     
    Negative statement
     
    I hadn't been walking, she hadn't been walking, they hadn't been taking, he hadn't been taking
     
    Question
     
    Had I been walking? Had she been walking? Had they been taking? Had he been taking?
     
     
  • Future: Will-Future

     
       
     
    Use
     
    Describing things that will certainly happen in the future, talking about expectations, hopes or assumptions, spontaneous decisions
     
    Structure
     
    will + Infinitive
     
    Signal words
     
    tomorrow, next week/month/year, in 2021, expect, believe, hope, suppose, think, probably
     
    Positive statement
     
    I will walk, she will walk, they will take, he will take
     
    Negative statement
     
    I won't walk, she won't walk, they won't take, he won't take
     
    Question
     
    Will I walk? Will she walk? Will they take? Will he take?
     
     
  • Future: Going-to-Future

     
       
     
    Use
     
    Describing plans and aims in the future, implications, talking about things that will happen in the near future
     
    Structure
     
    am/are/is (simple present form of to be) + going to + Infinitive
     
    Signal words
     
    tomorrow, next week/month/year, in 2011
     
    Positive statement
     
    I am going to walk, she is going to walk, they are going to take, he is going to take
     
    Negative statement
     
    I am not going to walk, she isn't going to walk, they aren't going to take, he isn't going to take
     
    Question
     
    Am I going to walk? Is she going to walk? Are they going to take? Is he going to take?
     
     
  • Future: Future Progressive

     
       
     
    Use
     
    Describing things that will be in progress in the future, talking about things that usually happen in the future
     
    Structure
     
    will + be + Infinitive + ing
     
    Signal words
     
    tomorrow, next week/month/year, in 2041
     
    Positive statement
     
    I will be walking, she will be walking, they will be taking, he will be taking
     
    Negative statement
     
    I won't be walking, she won't be walking, they won't be taking, he won't be taking
     
    Question
     
    Will I be walking? Will she be walking? Will they be taking? Will he be taking?
     
     
  • Future: Future Perfect

     
       
     
    Use
     
    Talking about things that will be completed or over at a certain time in the future
     
    Structure
     
    will + have + past participle
     
    Signal words
     
    until, before by the end of the day, by the end of the week, by the end of the month, …
     
    Positive statement
     
    I will have walked, she will have walked, they will have taken, he will have taken
     
    Negative statement
     
    I won't have walked, she won't have walked, they won't have taken, he won't have taken
     
    Question
     
    Will I have walked? Will she have walked? Will they have taken? Will he have taken?
     
     
 
 
Take a look at the following examples:
  • Apparently, she had been waiting on that spot for two hours but the bus did not come.
  • He told me that he had been spending every minute with her the week before I arrived.
In the next exercise, you have to fill in the gaps with the correct forms of the past perfect progressive. The past perfect progressive is a tense that is not used very often. A case in which you do use it is when you use indirect speech. This is why, in the exercise below, the sentences you have to complete will all be in indirect speech. That doesn't make it any more difficult though – it only makes the context more logical. For example:
Maria told us that he __________ in the kitchen but she thought he had already been gone.
] Maria told us that he had been waiting in the kitchen but she thought he had already been gone.
Go on and try!
 
 
  • Pedro told me a story the other day. He said he 
     to go to a grocery store all day, so finally he went. (to plan)

     
  • He said that after he 
     in the direction of the store for 5 minutes already, he realized he had forgotten his keys. (to walk)

     
  • He told me that he 
     that this would happen ever since he moved into his own apartment. (to worry)

     
  • Luckily, his neighbour, to whom he 
     about his worries for hours, had offered to keep a second key for special occasions like this. (to talk)

     
  • I replied that I 
     him to do a stupid thing like that. (to expect)

     
  • As a child he had always forgotten a lot of important things, but we 
     used to him being more careful with these things. (to get)

     
 
 
 
In the second exercise, you will find all forms of past tenses. You have to mark the different tenses in different colours. Of course, you can only do that if you have studied all the past tenses already.
Each colour stands for a different tense:
  • simple past: purple
  • past progressive: orange
  • present perfect: yellow
  • present perfect progressive: grey
  • past perfect: green
  • past perfect progressive: blue
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Learn more ...

Ad

Dictionary
  • Dictionary
  • English Dictionary

BETA

 Double click on any word  on the page or type a word:

Powered by DictionaryBox.com