April 1

  • 1293 – Robert Winchelsey left England for Rome to be consecrated by the Pope, only to find that there wasn't one.
  • 1789 – Frederick Muhlenberg became the first person to qualify under the United States Constitution's strict mandate of what defines a head of the household for U.S. government purposes.
  • 1970 – The first of over 670,000 Gremlins were released into North America to crush imported machines.
  • 1976 – Apple Computer was originally founded to sell "do-it-yourself" kits.
  • 1996 – The government of Nova Scotia ordered the people of the City of Halifax to mate with over 200 multiple partners around the area.
  • 2006 – As mandated by a 2005 Act of the British Parliament, several British policing agencies joined together to become very serious and organised.

April 2

  • 1513 – Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León set foot on Florida, becoming the first European known to do so, purportedly while searching for the Fountain of Youth in the New World.
  • 1792 – By the Coinage Act, the United States Mint was founded and U.S. currency was decimalised.
  • 1801 – War of the Second Coalition: British forces led by Vice Admiral Horatio Nelson defeated the Dano-Norwegian fleet at the Battle of Copenhagen off the coast of Copenhagen.
  • 1945 – Brazil established diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union, but maintained a neutral relationship during the Cold War that was limited to commercial trade and cooperation agreements of minimal importance.
  • 1956 – As the World Turns premiered on American television as the first half-hour soap opera .
  • 1962 – The first official panda crossing opened outside Waterloo station in London.
  • 1973 – The Liberal Movement broke away from the Liberal and Country League in South Australia.
  • 1982 – Argentine special forces invaded the Falkland Islands, sparking the Falklands War.
  • 1984 – Aboard Soyuz T-11, Rakesh Sharma became the first Indian to be launched into space.
  • 1992 – John Gotti, the crime boss of the Gambino crime family, was convicted of racketeering, murder, conspiracy to commit murder, loansharking, obstruction of justice, illegal gambling and tax evasion.
  • 2002 – Operation Defensive Shield: Approximately 200 Palestinian militants fled the advancing Israel Defence Forces into the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem, starting a month-long standoff.
  • 2006 – Over 60 tornadoes broke out in the Central United States, killing 27 people and causing about US$1.1 billion in damages.

April 3

  • 1043 – Edward the Confessor was crowned King of England.
  • 1882 – Jesse James, an outlaw in the American Old West, was shot in the back and killed for a bounty of US$5,000.
  • 1888 – The first of eleven unsolved brutal murders of women committed in or near the impoverished Whitechapel district in the East End of London, occurred.
  • 1895 – The libel trial instigated by Irish author Oscar Wilde began, eventually resulting in Wilde's arrest, trial and imprisonment on charges of "gross indecency".
  • 1922 – Joseph Stalin became the first General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
  • 1936 – Bruno Hauptmann was executed in the electric chair for the kidnapping and murder of the "Lindbergh baby".
  • 1948 – An uprising began on Jeju Island, eventually leading to the deaths of between 14,000 and 30,000 individuals due to fighting between its various factions, and the violent suppression of the rebellion by the South Korean army.
  • 1948 – The Marshall Plan, an economic recovery programme established by U.S. Secretary of State George Marshall to assist the post-World War II re-building of Europe, was signed into law.
  • 1966 – Luna 10 entered orbit around the Moon, becoming the first space probe to orbit an astronomical body other than Earth.
  • 1971 – The Japanese tokusatsu television series Kamen Rider premiered, marking the beginning of the long-running Kamen Rider franchise.
  • 1973 – On a New York City street, Motorola researcher Martin Cooper made the first public call on a handheld mobile phone.
  • 1974 – The Super Outbreak of 148 tornadoes began, killing at least 315 people and injuring 5,484 in 13 U.S. states at the end of a very strong La Niña event.
  • 1996 – A U.S. Air Force CT-43 crashed into a mountainside while attempting an instrument approach to Dubrovnik Airport in Dubrovnik, Croatia, killing U.S. Secretary of Commerce Ron Brown and all the other 34 people on board.

April 4

  • 1581 – Francis Drake completed a circumnavigation of the globe, the first Englishman to do so.
  • 1660 – Charles II of England issued the Declaration of Breda, describing his conditions for the Restoration of the crown of England.
  • 1721 – Robert Walpole took office as First Lord of the Treasury, Chancellor of the Exchequer and Leader of the House of Commons, becoming what would later be recognised as the first British Prime Minister.
  • 1841 – William Henry Harrison became the first U.S. President to die in office, 32 days into his term, sparking a brief constitutional crisis regarding questions about presidential succession that were left unanswered by the U.S. Constitution.
  • 1850 – Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality, five months before California achieved U.S. statehood.
  • 1859 – Bryant's Minstrels premiered the popular American song "Dixie" in New York City as part of their blackface minstrel show.
  • 1949 – Twelve nations signed the North Atlantic Treaty, creating NATO, an organisation that constitutes a system of collective defence whereby its member states agree to mutual defence in response to an attack by any external party.
  • 1968 – American civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr. was assassinated.
  • 1969 – Surgeons Denton Cooley and Domingo Liotta implanted the first total artificial heart.
  • 1973 – The World Trade Centre in New York City was officially dedicated, about a year after the second of the building complex's twin towers were completed.
  • 1975 – Bill Gates and Paul Allen founded Microsoft in Albuquerque, New Mexico, US, to develop and sell BASIC interpreters for the Altair 8800.
  • 1979 – Deposed Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto of Pakistan was executed.
  • 2002 – The Angolan government and UNITA rebels signed a peace treaty, agreeing to follow the 1994 Lusaka Protocol and ending the decades-long Angolan Civil War.

April 5

  • 1242 – Northern Crusades: In the Battle of the Ice, Novgorod forces led by Alexander Nevsky rebuffed an invasion attempt by the Teutonic Knights at Lake Peipus on the present-day border of Estonia and Russia.
  • 1614 – Native American Pocahontas married English colonist John Rolfe in Virginia, and was christened Lady Rebecca.
  • 1847 – Britain's first civic public park, Birkenhead Park in Birkenhead, Merseyside, England, opened.
  • 1862 – American Civil War: Union Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan's Army of the Potomac engaged Confederate forces led by Maj. Gen. John B. Magruder at the Battle of Yorktown in Yorktown, Virginia.
  • 1879 – A decades-long border dispute between Chile and Bolivia over control of the saltpeter-rich Atacama Desert and other territories escalated into the War of the Pacific.
  • 1936 – Tupelo-Gainesville Outbreak: An F5 tornado hit Tupelo, Mississippi, USA, killing about 436 people.
  • 1976 – The Tiananmen Incident, a protest against the repression of the Chinese regime nearing the end of the Cultural Revolution, took place in Tiananmen Square in Beijing.
  • 1992 – Bosnian War: Unidentified gunmen killed two people while firing upon a large crowd of anti-war protesters in Sarajevo, marking the start of the four-year-long Siege of Sarajevo.
  • 1998 – Japan's Akashi-Kaikyo Bridge, linking Awaji Island and Kobe, opened to traffic, becoming the longest suspension bridge in the world to date with a main span length of 1991 metres.
  • 2009 – The North Korean satellite Kwangmyongsong-2 was launched from the Tonghae Satellite Launching Ground and passed over Japan, sparking concerns by other nations that it may have been a trial run of technology that could be used to launch intercontinental ballistic missiles.

April 6

  • 1320 – The Declaration of Arbroath, a declaration of Scottish independence, was adopted.
  • 1652 – Dutch sailor Jan van Riebeeck established the first permanent European settlement in South Africa at what eventually became known as Cape Town.
  • 1782 – Rama I succeeded King Taksin of Siam, founding the Chakri Dynasty.
  • 1830 – Joseph Smith, Jr., Oliver Cowdery, David Whitmer and others formally organised the Church of Christ, starting the Latter Day Saint movement.
  • 1866 – The Grand Army of the Republic, a fraternal organisation composed of veterans of the Union Army who had served in the American Civil War, was founded in Decatur, Illinois.
  • 1886 – Vancouver, one of British Columbia's youngest cities, was incorporated.
  • 1895 – Playwright Oscar Wilde was arrested in London for "acts of gross indecency".
  • 1896 – The first modern Olympic Games opened in Athens, with 241 athletes from 14 nations participating in 43 events in nine disciplines.
  • 1941 – World War II: The Axis Powers began both Operation Marita and Directive n. 25, invading Greece and Yugoslavia, respectively.
  • 1947 – The first Tony Awards, recognising achievement in live American theatre were handed out at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel in New York City.
  • 1994 – The airplane carrying Rwandan President Juvénal Habyarimana and Burundian President Cyprien Ntaryamira was shot down as it prepared to land in Kigali, Rwanda, marking the beginning of the Rwandan Genocide.
  • 2009 – A 6.3 Mw earthquake struck the region of Abruzzo in central Italy, killing 308 people and injuring more than 1,500 others.

April 7

  • 529 – Byzantine Emperor Justinian I issued the first draft of the Corpus Juris Civilis, a collection of fundamental works in jurisprudence.
  • 1348 – King Charles of Bohemia issued a Golden Bull to establish Charles University in Prague, the first university in Central Europe.
  • 1739 – English highwayman Dick Turpin was executed in York, later becoming the subject of legend and romanticised in English ballads, popular theatre, film, and television.
  • 1805 – German composer Ludwig van Beethoven premiered his Third Symphony, at the Theatre an der Wien in Vienna.
  • 1862 – American Civil War: Union forces defeated Confederates at the Battle of Shiloh in Hardin County, Tennessee.
  • 1868 – D'Arcy McGee, a Canadian Father of Confederation, was assassinated; to date, the only Canadian political assassination at the federal level.
  • 1896 – An Arctic expedition led by Norwegian explorer Fridtjof Nansen reached 86°13.6'N, almost three degrees beyond the previous Farthest North mark.
  • 1945 – World War II: American forces sank the Japanese battleship Yamato, the largest battleship in the world, during Operation Ten-Go.
  • 1948 – The United Nations established the World Health Organisation to act as a coordinating authority on international public health.
  • 1954 – Cold War: U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower introduced the domino theory, speculating that if one nation in a region came under the influence of communism, then its surrounding countries would follow in a domino effect.
  • 1956 – Spain relinquished its protectorate in Morocco.
  • 1969 – The Internet was symbolically born with publication of RFC 1.

April 8

  • 217 – Roman Emperor Caracalla was assassinated at a roadside near Harran.
  • 1093 – Winchester Cathedral at Winchester in Hampshire, one of the largest cathedrals in England, was dedicated by Bishop Walkelin.
  • 1886 – British Prime Minister William Gladstone introduced the first Irish Home Rule Bill into the British House of Commons.
  • 1904 – France and the United Kingdom signed the entente cordiale, agreeing to a peaceful coexistence after centuries of intermittent conflict.
  • 1904 – British occultist and writer Aleister Crowley began transcribing The Book of the Law, a Holy Book in Thelema.
  • 1904 – Longacre Square in Midtown Manhattan, New York City was renamed Times Square after The New York Times building.
  • 1929 – Indian independence movement: Indian revolutionary Bhagat Singh with the help of Batukeshwar Dutt bombed the Central Assembly in Delhi.
  • 1968 – BOAC Flight 712 suffered an engine fire shortly after take off from London Heathrow Airport, leading to deaths of five people on board, including flight attendant Barbara Jane Harrison, who was later awarded a posthumous George Cross for her heroism during the accident.

April 9

  • 1241 – A combined force of Poles and Germans attempted to halt the Mongol invasion of Europe at the Battle of Legnica near present-day Legnica, Poland.
  • 1865 – With their supply trains destroyed by Union troops one day earlier, Confederate forces under Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union General Ulysses S. Grant at the McLean House near the Appomattox Court House in Virginia, effectively ending the American Civil War.
  • 1917 – World War I: The Canadian Corps began the first wave of attacks at the Battle of Vimy Ridge in Vimy, France.
  • 1940 – World War II: Nazi Germany began Operation Weserübung, invading Denmark and Norway.
  • 1942 – World War II: Japanese forces defeated Allied troops at the Battle of Bataan on the Bataan Peninsula in the Philippines before beginning to forcibly transfer more than 90,000 prisoners of war to prison camps in the Bataan Death March.
  • 1947 – The Glazier-Higgins-Woodward tornadoes killed 181 people and injured 970 others in Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas.
  • 1959 – NASA announced the selection of the Mercury Seven, the first astronauts in Project Mercury.
  • 1967 – The first Boeing 737 took its maiden flight, eventually becoming the most ordered and produced commercial passenger jet airliner in the world.
  • 1989 – An anti-Soviet demonstration in Tbilisi, Georgia, was quashed by the Soviet army, resulting in 20 deaths and hundreds of injuries.
  • 2005 – Charles, Prince of Wales, married his long-time mistress Camilla Parker Bowles.

April 10

  • 1741 – War of the Austrian Succession: Prussia defeated Austria at the Battle of Mollwitz in present-day Malujowice, Poland, cementing Prussian King Frederick II's authority over the newly conquered territory of Silesia.
  • 1815 – Mount Tambora in Indonesia began one of the most violent volcanic eruptions in recorded history, killing at least 71,000 people.
  • 1826 – Greek War of Independence: The 10,500 inhabitants of the Greek town Messolonghi started leaving the town after a year's siege by Turkish forces, but very few of them ultimately survived.
  • 1919 – Mexican Revolutionary leader Emiliano Zapata was shot to death near Ciudad Ayala, Morelos.
  • 1925 – The novel The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald was first published.
  • 1941 – World War II: The Independent State of Croatia was established, with Ustaše leader Ante Pavelic as head of the puppet government of the Axis powers.
  • 1968 – In the best-known maritime disaster in New Zealand's history, the inter-island ferry TEV Wahine capsised outside Wellington harbour, killing 53 of the 733 people on board.
  • 1971 – In an attempt to thaw Sino-American relations, members of the American Table Tennis Team entered the People's Republic of China for a weeklong visit.
  • 1998 – The Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom signed the Belfast Agreement in Belfast, a major step in the Northern Ireland peace process.
  • 2010 – A Tupolev Tu-154M aircraft carrying President of Poland Lech Kaczynski and other Polish officials crashed while attempting to land in heavy fog at Smolensk-North air base near Smolensk, Russia, killing all 96 on board.

April 11

  • 1241 – Mongol invasion of Europe: Mongols led by Batu Khan and Subutai crushed the Hungarian army of King Béla IV at the Battle of Mohi near the Sajó River in Hungary.
  • 1713 – The main agreements of the Treaty of Utrecht were signed in the Dutch city of Utrecht, helping to end the War of the Spanish Succession.
  • 1814 – The Treaty of Fontainebleau was signed, ending the War of the Sixth Coalition, and forcing Napoleon to abdicate as ruler of France and sending him into exile on Elba.
  • 1828 – Bahía Blanca in Argentina was founded as a fortress to protect dwellers and their cattle from native rustling, and to protect the coast from the Brazilian navy.
  • 1888 – The Concertgebouw concert hall in Amsterdam was inaugurated.
  • 1908 – SMS Blücher, the last armored cruiser to be built by the German Imperial Navy, was launched.
  • 1945 – World War II: American forces liberated the Buchenwald concentration camp near Weimar, Germany.
  • 1965 – Almost 50 confirmed tornadoes struck six states in the Midwestern United States during the Palm Sunday tornado outbreak, killing over 270 people and injuring 1,500 others.
  • 1968 – U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1968, prohibiting discrimination in the sale, rental, and financing of housing.
  • 1979 – Ugandan–Tanzanian War: The Uganda National Liberation Army and Tanzanian forces captured Kampala, forcing Ugandan President Idi Amin to flee.
  • 1981 – Tensions between residents and the police in Brixton, South London, escalated into a massive riot that resulted in almost 300 police injuries, 45 civilian injuries, over a hundred vehicles burned, and over 150 buildings damaged.
  • 2002 – In a coup attempt, members of the Venezuelan military detained President Hugo Chávez and demanded his resignation.

April 12

  • 467 – Anthemius was proclaimed Western Roman Emperor at the third or twelfth mile from Rome.
  • 1204 – Alexius V Ducas fled Constantinople as forces under Boniface the Marquess of Montferrat and Enrico Dandolo the Doge of Venice entered and sacked the Byzantine capital, effectively ending the Fourth Crusade.
  • 1606 – A royal decree established the Union Flag to symbolise the Union of the Crowns, merging the designs of the Flag of England and the Flag of Scotland.
  • 1861 – Confederate forces began firing at Fort Sumter in the harbour of Charleston, South Carolina, starting the American Civil War.
  • 1910 – The SMS Zrinyi, one of the last pre-dreadnoughts built by the Austro-Hungarian Navy, was launched.
  • 1927 – Chinese Civil War: A large-scale purge of communists from the nationalist Kuomintang began in Shanghai.
  • 1961 – Aboard Vostok 3KA-2, Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin became the first man to enter outer space, completing one orbit in a time of 108 minutes.
  • 1980 – Samuel Doe took control of Liberia in a coup d'etat, overthrowing President William R. Tolbert, Jr. and ending over 130 years of national democratic presidential succession.
  • 1981 – Columbia, the first spaceworthy space shuttle, was launched from the Kennedy Space Centre in Florida for its first flight.
  • 1992 – Disneyland Resort Paris, the first Walt Disney Park in Europe, opened in the Paris suburb of Marne-la-Vallée.

April 13

  • 1598 – King Henry IV of France issued the Edict of Nantes, allowing freedom of religion to the Huguenots.
  • 1742 – Messiah, an oratorio by Baroque composer George Frideric Handel, premiered in Dublin.
  • 1873 – In the wake of a disputed election for local political offices in Colfax, Louisiana, US, armed white supremacists overpowered freedmen and the African American state militia trying to control the parish courthouse, killing over 100 of them.
  • 1919 – The Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, a government in exile based in Shanghai during the Japanese occupation of Korea, was formed.
  • 1919 – British Indian Army troops massacred hundreds of unarmed men, women and children who were attending a peaceful gathering at the Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar, Punjab, India.
  • 1943 – World War II: Germany announced the discovery of a mass grave of Polish prisoners-of-war executed by Soviet forces in the Katyn Forest Massacre, driving a wedge among the Allies, particularly the Polish government-in-exile in London and the Soviet Union.
  • 1948 – A convoy bringing medical and fortification supplies and personnel to Hadassah Hospital on Mount Scopus was ambushed by Arab forces, leaving about eighty people dead.
  • 1956 – The Vietnamese National Army captured Ba Cut, military commander of the Hoa Hao religious sect, which ran a de facto state in southern Vietnam in opposition to Prime Minister Ngo Dinh Diem.
  • 1984 – Indian forces launched Operation Meghdoot, a preemptive attack on the disputed Siachen Glacier region of Kashmir, triggering a military conflict with Pakistan.
  • 1997 – In golf, twenty-one-year-old Tiger Woods became the youngest player to win The U.S. Masters, breaking the tournament's record for the lowest four-round score (270–strokes, 18–under–par).
  • 2009 – Twenty-three people died in a homeless hostel fire in Kamien Pomorski, Poland, the country's deadliest fire since 1980.

April 14

  • 1434 – The foundation stone of the Cathedral of St. Peter and St. Paul in Nantes, Brittany, France, was first laid, but the building was not completed until more than four centuries later in 1891.
  • 1471 – Wars of the Roses: The Yorkists under Edward IV defeated the Lancastrians near the town of Barnet, killing Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick.
  • 1865 – Actor and Confederate sympathiser John Wilkes Booth shot U.S. President Abraham Lincoln at Ford's Theatre in Washington, D.C.
  • 1894 – The first ever commercial motion picture house opened in New York City using ten Kinetoscopes, a device for peep-show viewing using photographs that flip in sequence, a precursor to movies.
  • 1912 – The British passenger liner RMS Titanic hit an iceberg in the North Atlantic, and sank the following morning.
  • 1931 – After King Alfonso XIII left Spain, the Second Spanish Republic was proclaimed by a provisional government led by Niceto Alcalá-Zamora.
  • 1944 – The freighter SS Fort Stikine carrying a mixed cargo of cotton bales, gold, and ammunition exploded in the harbour in Bombay, India, sinking surrounding ships and killing about 800 people.
  • 1956 – The use of the quadruplex videotape was first demonstrated in public.
  • 1978 – Thousands of Georgians demonstrated in Tbilisi against an attempt by the Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR to change the constitutional status of the Georgian language.
  • 1994 – In an American friendly fire incident during Operation Provide Comfort in northern Iraq, two United States Air Force aircraft mistakenly shot down two United States Army helicopters, killing 26 people.
  • 1999 – A storm dropped an estimated 500,000 tonnes of hailstones in Sydney and along the east coast of New South Wales, causing about A$2.3 billion in damages, the costliest natural disaster in Australian insurance history.
  • 2010 – Plumes of ash from an ongoing eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland led to widespread disruption of air travel throughout Europe for several days.

April 15

  • 1715 – The Yamasee War between colonial South Carolina and various Native American Indian tribes began.
  • 1738 – Baroque composer George Frideric Handel's Serse, an opera loosely based on Xerxes I of Persia, premiered in London.
  • 1755 – A Dictionary of the English Language by Samuel Johnson was first published, becoming one of the most influential dictionaries in the history of the English language.
  • 1912 – The passenger liner RMS Titanic sank about two hours and forty minutes after colliding with an iceberg, killing over 1,500 people.
  • 1941 – World War II: Two hundred bombers of the German Luftwaffe attacked Belfast, Northern Ireland, killing about 1,000 people and rendering roughly 100,000 others homeless.
  • 1947 – Jackie Robinson, the first African American to break the baseball colour line, played his first game in Major League Baseball.
  • 1952 – The B-52 Stratofortress, a long-range, subsonic, jet-powered, strategic bomber operated by the United States Air Force for most of the aircraft's history, made its first flight.
  • 1958 – Walter O'Malley's Los Angeles Dodgers host the first Major League Baseball game played on the West Coast of the United States.
  • 1970 – During the Cambodian Civil War, massacres of the Vietnamese minority resulted in 800 bodies flowing down the Mekong River into South Vietnam.
  • 1986 – U.S. armed forces began bombing Libya to try to reduce that country's ability to support international terrorism.
  • 1989 – The death of former Chinese General Secretary Hu Yaobang triggered a series of events that led to the Tiananmen Square protests in Beijing.
  • 1989 – Ninety-six people died in a deadly human crush during a FA Cup semi-final match between Liverpool and Nottingham Forest at Hillsborough Stadium in Sheffield, England, the deadliest stadium-related disaster in British history.
  • 2005 – McDonald's, which was founded on this date in 1955, celebrated its 50th anniversary at the Rock N Roll McDonald's.

April 16

  • 1582 – Spanish conquistador Hernando de Lerma founded the settlement of Salta in Argentina.
  • 1746 – Forces of the House of Hanover defeated the Jacobites at the Battle of Culloden, the final confrontation of the Jacobite Rising.
  • 1853 – The first passenger line of what would become Indian Railways, the state-owned railway company of India, opened between Bombay and Thane.
  • 1912 – American Harriet Quimby became the first woman to fly across the English Channel.
  • 1917 – Vladimir Lenin returned to Petrograd from Switzerland, and joined the Bolshevik movement in Russia.
  • 1925 – A group of Bulgarian Communist Party members assaulted the St Nedelya Church in Sofia, Bulgaria during the funeral service of General Konstantin Georgiev, killing 150 people and injuring about 500 others.
  • 1943 – Swiss chemist Albert Hofmann discovered the psychedelic effects of the semisynthetic drug LSD.
  • 1947 – Thousands of tons of ammonium nitrate in the port of Texas City, Texas exploded, killing 581 people in the Texas City Disaster, which later led to the first ever class action lawsuit against the U.S. government.
  • 1947 – American financier and presidential adviser Bernard Baruch first described the post-World War II tensions between the Soviet Union and the United States as a "cold war".
  • 2003 – The Treaty of Accession was signed in Athens, admitting ten new member states into the European Union, including several countries of the former Eastern Bloc.
  • 2007 – In one of the deadliest shooting incidents in United States history, a gunman killed 32 people and wounded over 20 more before committing suicide at the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in Blacksburg, Virginia.

April 17

  • 1555 – After 18 months of resistance, Siena surrendered to Florence and was annexed into the Grand Duchy of Tuscany.
  • 1797 – French Revolutionary Wars: British Lieutenant General Ralph Abercromby and a force of over 6,000 men invaded Spanish-controlled Puerto Rico.
  • 1895 – The Empire of Japan and the Qing Empire of China signed the Treaty of Shimonoseki to end the First Sino-Japanese War.
  • 1907 – Brazil's Minas Geraes was laid down, making the country the third in the world to have a dreadnought battleship under construction and sparking a South American naval arms race.
  • 1937 – Daffy Duck made his debut in a short cartoon by the Warner Bros. Studio.
  • 1942 – World War II: Captured French General Henri Giraud escaped from German captivity in the Königstein Castle.
  • 1961 – Armed Cuban exiles backed by the CIA invaded Cuba, landing in the Bay of Pigs, with the aim of overthrowing the Cuban government under Fidel Castro.
  • 1969 – Czechoslovak Communist Party chairman Alexander Dubcek was deposed.
  • 1975 – The Khmer Rouge under Pol Pot captured Phnom Penh, ending the Cambodian Civil War, and established Democratic Kampuchea.
  • 1982 – A new patriated Constitution of Canada, including the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, a bill of rights intended to protect certain political and civil rights of people in Canada from the policies and actions of all levels of government, was signed into law by the Queen of Canada.
  • 1984 – British police officer Yvonne Fletcher was shot and killed while on duty during a protest outside the Libyan embassy in London's St James's Square, resulting in an eleven-day police siege of the building, and causing a breakdown of diplomatic relations between the United Kingdom and Libya.
  • 1986 – The Netherlands and the Isles of Scilly declared peace, ending the Three Hundred and Thirty Five Years' War.

April 18

  • 1025 – Boleslaw I Chrobry became the first King of Poland.
  • 1506 – Construction of the current St. Peter's Basilica in Vatican City, to replace the old St. Peter's Basilica built in the 4th century, began.
  • 1906 – A major earthquake and resulting fires devastated San Francisco, killing at least 3,000 people and leaving more than half of the city's population homeless.
  • 1942 – World War II: Sixteen B-25 Mitchell bombers from the aircraft carrier USS Hornet carried out the Doolittle Raid, the first Allied attack on the Japanese home islands.
  • 1947 – In the largest non-nuclear single explosive detonation in history, the Royal Navy set off 6,800 tonnes of surplus ammunition in an attempt to destroy Heligoland, Germany.
  • 1983 – A suicide bomber destroyed the United States Embassy in Beirut, Lebanon, killing over 60 people with a car bomb.
  • 1988 – Iran–Iraq War: U.S. naval forces attacked Iranian forces in retaliation for the Iranian mining of the Persian Gulf and the subsequent damage to the American frigate USS Samuel B. Roberts.
  • 1996 – Israeli forces shelled Qana, Lebanon, during Operation Grapes of Wrath, killing over 100 civilians and injuring over 110 others at a UN compound.

April 19

  • 1012 – After refusing to allow himself to be ransomed for his freedom by his Viking captors, Alphege was beaten to death by a mob in present-day London, the first Archbishop of Canterbury to die a violent death.
  • 1713 – With no living male heirs, Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI issued the Pragmatic Sanction to ensure one of his daughters would inherit the Habsburg lands.
  • 1775 – The American Revolutionary War began with the Battles of Lexington and Concord in the British colony of Massachusetts.
  • 1839 – The signing of the Treaty of London formally recognised Belgian independence from the United Kingdom of the Netherlands.
  • 1904 – A fire destroyed downtown Toronto, destroying 104 buildings and causing CAN$10,350,000 in damage.
  • 1943 – Nazi German troops entered the Warsaw Ghetto to round up the remaining Jews, sparking the first mass uprising in Poland against the Nazi occupation during the Holocaust.
  • 1956 – Actress Grace Kelly became Princess consort of Monaco upon marrying Rainier III, Prince of Monaco.
  • 1960 – Students in South Korea hold a nationwide pro-democracy protest against President Syngman Rhee, eventually forcing him to resign.
  • 1971 – The first space station, Salyut 1, was launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome near Tyuratam, Kazakh SSR, USSR.
  • 1984 – Scottish-born composer Peter Dodds McCormick's "Advance Australia Fair", a patriotic song that was first performed in 1878, officially replaced "God Save the Queen" as Australia's national anthem.
  • 1989 – A gun turret onboard the United States Navy battleship Iowa exploded, killing 47 sailors.
  • 1993 – The 51-day siege of the Mount Carmel Centre, the home of the Branch Davidian religious sect outside Waco, Texas, USA, ended when a fire broke out, killing over 70 people.
  • 1995 – A car bomb was detonated in front of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA, killing 168 people and injuring over 800 others.
  • 2005 – Joseph Alois Ratzinger became Pope Benedict XVI on the second day of the papal conclave.

April 20

  • 1303 – Pope Boniface VIII issued a bull establishing what is now Sapienza University of Rome, today one of the largest universities in Europe.
  • 1653 – Oliver Cromwell dissolved the Rump Parliament of the Commonwealth of England by force, eventually replacing it with the Barebone's Parliament.
  • 1862 – French chemist Louis Pasteur and physiologist Claude Bernard completed the first test on pasteurisation.
  • 1884 – Pope Leo XIII published the encyclical Humanum Genus, denouncing Freemasonry as well as a number of beliefs and practices purportedly associated with it such as popular sovereignty and the separation of church and state.
  • 1908 – The inaugural season of the New South Wales Rugby League premiership began with nine teams competing in Australia's first Rugby league football competition.
  • 1914 – A fire and a gun battle between the National Guard and striking coal miners in Colorado led to 17 deaths in the Ludlow massacre.
  • 1944 – Elmer Gedeon became one of two Major League Baseball fatal casualties during World War II.
  • 1945 – Morotai Mutiny: Eight senior Royal Australian Air Force fighter pilots resigned over a disagreement in attack strategy against Imperial Japan, leading to the sacking of their superior Air Commodore Harry Cobby.
  • 1968 – British Member of Parliament Enoch Powell made his controversial "Rivers of Blood" speech in opposition to immigration and anti-discrimination legislation, resulting in his removal from the Shadow Cabinet.
  • 1978 – Soviet fighters shot down Korean Air Lines Flight 902 after it violated Soviet airspace.
  • 1999 – Students Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold embarked on a massacre, killing 13 people and wounding over 20 others before committing suicide at Columbine High School in Columbine, Colorado, US.
  • 2008 – Fernando Lugo became the first non-Colorado Party candidate to be elected President of Paraguay in 61 years.

April 21

  • 753 BC – Romulus and Remus founded Rome, according to the calculations by Roman scholar Varro Reatinus.
  • 900 – A debt is pardoned by the Datu of Tondo on the island of Luzon, as inscribed on the Laguna Copperplate Inscription, the earliest known written document found in the Philippines.
  • 1509 – Henry VIII became King of England, following the death of his father, eventually becoming a significant figure in the history of the English monarchy.
  • 1836 – Texan forces led by Sam Houston defeated General Antonio López de Santa Anna and his Mexican troops in the Battle of San Jacinto near La Porte, the decisive battle in the Texas Revolution.
  • 1863 – After the Ottoman Empire exiled him from Baghdad, Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith, began his twelve-day stay in the Garden of Ridván where he declared his mission as "He whom God shall make manifest".
  • 1894 – Norway formally adopted the Krag-Jørgensen, a repeating bolt action rifle designed by the Norwegians Ole Herman Johannes Krag and Erik Jørgensen, as the main firearm of its armed forces.
  • 1918 – Manfred von Richthofen, known as "The Red Baron", was shot down and killed near Vaux-sur-Somme in France, after a career as the most successful fighter pilot of World War I with 80 confirmed air combat victories.
  • 1922 – The first annual Aggie Muster was held as a remembrance for fellow students and alumni of Texas A&M University in College Station, Texas, USA who have died in the previous year.
  • 1960 – Brasília, a planned city primarily designed by architect and urban planner Lúcio Costa, was officially inaugurated, replacing Rio de Janeiro as the capital of Brazil.
  • 1967 – Colonel Georgios Papadopoulos overthrew the government of Prime Minister Panagiotis Kanellopoulos in a coup d'état, establishing the Regime of the Colonels in Greece.
  • 1970 – In response to a long-running dispute over wheat production quotas, the Principality of Hutt River proclaimed their secession from Western Australia.
  • 1975 – Nguyen Van Thieu resigned as President of South Vietnam, and was replaced by Tran Van Huong, as communist forces closed in on victory.

April 22

  • 1500 – Portuguese explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral and his crew became the first Europeans to sight Brazil when they spotted Monte Pascoal.
  • 1529 – Spain and Portugal signed the Treaty of Zaragoza, defining the areas of their respective influence in Asia.
  • 1864 – The U.S. Congress passed the Coinage Act, authorising the minting of a two-cent coin, the first U.S. coin to bear the phrase "In God We Trust".
  • 1889 – Over 50,000 people rushed to claim a piece of the available two million acres (8,000 km2) in the Unassigned Lands, the present-day U.S. state of Oklahoma. Within hours, both Oklahoma City and Guthrie had established cities of around 10,000 people.
  • 1915 – The Germans released chlorine gas as a chemical weapon in the Second Battle of Ypres, killing over 5,000 soldiers within ten minutes by asphyxiation in the first large-scale successful use of poison gas in World War I.
  • 1930 – France, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States signed the London Naval Treaty, regulating submarine warfare and limiting military ship building.
  • 1945 – About 600 prisoners of the Jasenovac concentration camp in the Independent State of Croatia revolted, but only 80 managed to escape while the other 520 were killed by the Croatian Ustaše regime.
  • 1951 – Korean War: The People's Volunteer Army of China attacked positions occupied mainly by Australian and Canadian forces, starting the Battle of Kapyong.
  • 1993 – The first version of Mosaic, created by computer programmers Marc Andreessen and Eric Bina at the National Centre for Supercomputing Applications of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, was released, becoming the first popular World Wide Web browser and Gopher client.
  • 1998 – Disney's Animal Kingdom at the Walt Disney World Resort in Florida opened, covering more than 500 acres.
  • 2000 – In response to the rapid late 1990s growth of telecommunications, the United Kingdom enacted the Big Number Change, modifying the telephone numbering plans in various areas across the country.
  • 2000 – In a predawn raid, U.S. Immigration and Naturalisation Service agents seized six-year-old Elián González from his relatives' home in Miami, Florida, and returned him to his Cuban father.

April 23

  • 1014 – Irish forces led by Brian Boru clashed with the Vikings in the Battle of Clontarf.
  • 1348 – The first-ever appointments of the Order of the Garter, an order of chivalry, founded by King Edward III of England, that is presently bestowed on recipients in the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth realms, were announced.
  • 1661 – Charles II was crowned King of England, Ireland, and Scotland at Westminster Abbey.
  • 1827 – Irish mathematician and physicist William Rowan Hamilton presented his Theory of Systems of Rays.
  • 1920 – The Grand National Assembly of Turkey, the Turkish unicameral parliament, was founded in Ankara in the midst of the Turkish War of Independence.
  • 1923 – Gdynia was inaugurated as a Polish seaport on the coast of Gdansk Bay, a southwestern bay of the Baltic Sea.
  • 1935 – Poland adopted a new constitution, introducing a presidential system with certain elements of authoritarianism.
  • 1954 – Batting against Vic Raschi of the St. Louis Cardinals, Hank Aaron of the Milwaukee Braves hit the first of his then-record 755 home runs in Major League Baseball.
  • 1961 – Dressed in his 1940s-vintage general's uniform, President Charles de Gaulle delivered a televised speech calling on the military personnel and civilians of France to oppose the Algiers putsch, a coup d'état attempt against him.
  • 1968 – Students protesting the Vietnam War at Columbia University in New York City took over administration buildings and shut down the university.
  • 1979 – Activist Blair Peach suffered fatal head injuries after being knocked unconscious during an Anti-Nazi League demonstration in Southall, London, against a British National Front election meeting in the town hall.
  • 1982 – The City of Key West in Florida facetiously declared independence from the United States to protest a United States Border Patrol roadblock and inspection point along U.S. Route 1, the main road into the city.
  • 1985 – The Coca-Cola Company introduced "New Coke" to replace its flagship soft drink Coca-Cola, eventually generating so much negative response that the company put the original formula back on the market less than three months later.

April 24

  • 1479 BC – Thutmose III became the sixth Pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt according to the official chronology, although during the first 22 years of the reign he was co-regent with his aunt, Hatshepsut.
  • 1866 – German composer Max Bruch's First Violin Concerto premiered with the composer himself conducting.
  • 1877 – Unable to resolve a series of disputes over the Balkans in the aftermath of the 1876 Bulgarian April Uprising, Russia declared war on the Ottoman Empire, starting the Russo-Turkish War.
  • 1915 – The Armenian Genocide in the Ottoman Empire began with the arrest and deportation of hundreds of prominent Armenians in Constantinople.
  • 1916 – Irish republicans led by teacher and political activist Patrick Pearse began the Easter Rising, a rebellion against British rule in Ireland, and proclaimed the Irish Republic an independent state.
  • 1967 – The Soviet spacecraft Soyuz 1 crashed in Siberia during its return to Earth, killing cosmonaut Vladimir Mikhaylovich Komarov, the first in-flight fatality in the history of spaceflight.
  • 1980 – Eight U.S. servicemen died in Operation Eagle Claw, a failed attempt to rescue the hostages in the Iran hostage crisis.
  • 1990 – The Hubble Space Telescope was launched aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery in mission STS-31.
  • 1993 – The Provisional Irish Republican Army detonated a truck bomb in London's financial district in Bishopsgate, killing one person, injuring 44 others and causing £1 billion in damages.

April 25

  • 1719 – Robinson Crusoe, a novel by English author Daniel Defoe about a castaway who spends 28 years on a remote tropical island near Venezuela, was first published.
  • 1792 – French composer Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle wrote La Marseillaise, now the national anthem of France.
  • 1846 – An open conflict between the military forces of the United States and Mexico began over the disputed border of Texas north of the Rio Grande and south of the Nueces River, later serving as a primary justification for Mexican–American War.
  • 1898 – Spanish–American War: The United States retroactively declared war on Spain, stating that a state of war between the two countries had already existed for the past couple of days.
  • 1915 – World War I: Australian and New Zealand Army Corps landed at Anzac Cove while British and French troops landed at Cape Helles to begin the Allied invasion of the Gallipoli peninsula in the Ottoman Empire.
  • 1953 – Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids by molecular biologists James Watson and Francis Crick was first published in the scientific journal Nature, describing the discovery of the double helix structure of DNA.
  • 1974 – The song "Grândola, Vila Morena" by Zeca Afonso was broadcast on radio, signalling the start of the Carnation Revolution, a bloodless coup against the Estado Novo regime in Portugal.
  • 1986 – Mswati III was crowned King of Swaziland, succeeding his father Sobhuza II.
  • 2005 – A commuter train came off its tracks in Amagasaki, Hyogo, Japan and rammed into an apartment building, killing the driver and 106 passengers and injuring 555 others in the Amagasaki rail crash.

April 26

  • 1478 – In a conspiracy to replace the Medici family as rulers of the Florentine Republic, the Pazzi family attacked Lorenzo de' Medici and killed his brother Giuliano during High Mass at the Florence Duomo.
  • 1865 – U.S. Army soldiers cornered and fatally shot John Wilkes Booth, the assassin of U.S. President Abraham Lincoln, in rural northern Virginia, ending a twelve-day manhunt.
  • 1925 – Paul von Hindenburg defeated Wilhelm Marx in the second round of the German presidential election, becoming the first directly elected head of state of the Weimar Republic.
  • 1933 – The Gestapo, the official secret police force in Nazi Germany, was established.
  • 1937 – Spanish Civil War: The Bombing of Guernica by the Condor Legion of the German Luftwaffe resulted in a devastating firestorm that caused widespread destruction and civilian deaths in the Basque town.
  • 1944 – US Navy submarines began attacks on Japan's Take Ichi convoy as it sailed in waters between Taiwan and the Philippines, eventually sinking four vessels and killing over 4,000 troops.
  • 1958 – The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad's Royal Blue, one of the first major railway electrification systems in the United States, made its final Washington, D.C., to New York City run.
  • 1964 – Tanganyika and Zanzibar merged to form Tanzania.
  • 1983 – Cold War: Replying to her letter in which she expressed her fears about the tensions between the Soviet Union and the United States, Soviet leader Yuri Andropov invited American schoolgirl Samantha Smith to visit Moscow, Leningrad and the Artek Young Pioneer camp.
  • 1986 – The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant near Chernobyl, Ukrainian SSR, suffered a steam explosion, resulting in a fire, a nuclear meltdown, and the evacuation and resettlement of over 336,000 people around Europe.
  • 2002 – Expelled student Robert Steinhäuser murdered 16 people and wounded seven others before committing suicide at the Gutenberg-Gymnasium Erfurt in Erfurt, Germany.
  • 2007 – Controversy surrounding the relocation of the Bronze Soldier of Tallinn, a Soviet Red Army World War II memorial in Tallinn, Estonia, erupted into mass protests and riots.

April 27

  • 1296 – In the first battle of the First War of Scottish Independence, the English defeated the Scots near Dunbar, Scotland.
  • 1521 – Filipino natives led by chieftain Lapu-Lapu killed Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan and over forty Spanish soldiers at the Battle of Mactan.
  • 1565 – Conquistador Miguel López de Legazpi and 500 armed soldiers arrived at Cebu and established there the first Spanish settlement in the Philippines.
  • 1650 – Wars of the Three Kingdoms: The Covenanters defeated an invading Royalist army at the Battle of Carbisdale near the village of Culrain, Scotland.
  • 1805 – First Barbary War: U.S. Marines engaged forces of the Barbary Coast at the Battle of Derne in Tripoli, marking the first recorded land battle by the United States on foreign soil.
  • 1865 – An explosion destroyed the steamboat Sultana on the Mississippi River, killing 1,700 of the 2,400 passengers.
  • 1865 – The New York State Senate created Cornell University as the state's land grant institution.
  • 1904 – Chris Watson became the first Australian Prime Minister from the Australian Labour Party, and the first Labour Party prime minister in the world.
  • 1909 – After the government was restored following the 31 March Incident and the Adana massacre, Abdul Hamid II, the last Sultan of the Ottoman Empire to rule with absolute power, was overthrown by Mehmed V.
  • 1911 – Following the resignation of William P. Frye, a compromise was reached in the United States Senate to rotate the office of the President pro tempore of the United States Senate.
  • 1967 – The Expo 67 World's Fair opened in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, with over 50 million visitors and 62 nations participating.
  • 1992 – Betty Boothroyd became the first female Speaker of the British House of Commons.
  • 1993 – Members of the Zambia national football team were killed in a plane crash off Libreville, Gabon en route to Dakar, Senegal to play a 1994 FIFA World Cup qualifying match against the Senegal national team.
  • 1994 – Nelson Mandela and the African National Congress won a landslide victory in the first non-racial elections in the history of South Africa.

April 28

  • 1192 – Third Crusade: Conrad of Montferrat, the elected King of Jerusalem, was fatally stabbed by members of the Hashshashin.
  • 1611 – The University of Santo Tomas in Manila, one of the oldest existing universities in Asia and one of the world's largest Catholic universities in terms of enrollment, was founded.
  • 1789 – About 1,300 miles west of Tahiti, near Tonga, Fletcher Christian, the master's mate on board the Royal Navy ship HMAV Bounty, led a mutiny against the ship's commander William Bligh.
  • 1920 – The Soviet Union established the Azerbaijan SSR after the government of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic surrendered to the invading Bolsheviks.
  • 1923 – London's Wembley Stadium, then known as Empire Stadium, was opened to the public for the first time and held the 1923 FA Cup Final between Bolton Wanderers and West Ham United football clubs.
  • 1952 – Japan and the Republic of China signed the Treaty of Taipei to officially end the Second Sino-Japanese War between the two states, seven years after fighting in that conflict ended due to the Chinese Civil War.
  • 1952 – The Treaty of San Francisco entered into force, ending the occupation of Japan by the former Allied Powers of World War II.
  • 1969 – Charles de Gaulle, the first President of the French Fifth Republic, resigned following his defeat on a nationwide referendum.
  • 1975 – General Cao Van Vien, chief of the South Vietnamese military, departed for the US as the North Vietnamese Army closed in on victory.
  • 1978 – Mohammed Daoud Khan, the first President of Afghanistan, was overthrown and assassinated in a coup d'état by pro-communist supporters.
  • 1988 – Near Maui, Hawaii, flight attendant Clarabelle "C.B." Lansing was blown out of Aloha Airlines Flight 243 and fell to her death when part of the plane's fuselage ripped open in mid-flight.
  • 1996 – A spree shooter in the Port Arthur massacre killed 35 people and seriously injured 37 in Tasmania, Australia.
  • 2001 – Dennis Tito became the world's first fee-paying space tourist, riding the Russian Soyuz TM-32 spacecraft to the International Space Station.
  • 2008 – The Trump International Hotel and Tower in Chicago, which became the world's highest residence above ground-level at 1389 feet, held its full service grand opening.

April 29

  • 1770 – British explorer James Cook and the crew of HMS Endeavour made their first landfall on Australia on the coast of Botany Bay near present-day Sydney.
  • 1862 – American Civil War: Union forces under David Farragut captured New Orleans, securing access into the Mississippi River.
  • 1882 – German inventor Ernst Werner von Siemens began operating his Elektromote, the world's first trolleybus, in a Berlin suburb.
  • 1916 – World War I: Khalil Pasha of the Ottoman Army accepted the surrender of Major-General Charles Townshend and the British Mesopotamian Expeditionary Force, ending the Siege of Kut.
  • 1945 – Adolf Hitler dictated his last will and testament to his secretary Traudl Junge in the Führerbunker, and then married Eva Braun in a brief ceremony.
  • 1945 – Allied forces began dropping food into parts of the occupied Netherlands, with the acquiescence of the occupying German forces, to feed people who were in danger of starvation due to the Dutch famine.
  • 1968 – The controversial musical Hair, a product of the hippie counter-culture and sexual revolution of the 1960s, opened at the Biltmore Theatre on Broadway, with its songs becoming anthems of the anti-Vietnam War movement.
  • 1970 – The South Vietnamese Army launched incursions into Cambodia to attack communist jungle bases.
  • 1975 – Vietnam War: American forces began evacuating U.S. citizens, Vietnamese and third country nationals from Saigon prior to the expected North Vietnamese takeover of the South Vietnam capital.
  • 1991 – A powerful tropical cyclone struck Chittagong, Bangladesh, killing at least 138,000 people and leaving as many as 10 million homeless.
  • 1992 – The acquittal of policemen who had beaten African-American motorist Rodney King sparked civil unrest in Los Angeles that lasted for six days and killed over 50 people.
  • 1999 – Kosovo War: The Avala TV Tower on Avala mountain near Belgrade, Serbia, was destroyed by NATO bombardment in an attempt to put Radio Television of Serbia off the air.

April 30

  • 313 – Roman Emperor Licinius unified the eastern half of the empire under his rule.
  • 711 – Umayyad troops led by Tariq ibn Ziyad landed at Gibraltar, beginning their conquest of Hispania.
  • 1006 – SN 1006, the brightest supernova in history, first appeared in the constellation Lupus, and was then seen by observers in Switzerland, Egypt, China, Japan, and possibly North America within the next day.
  • 1671 – Croatian Ban Petar Zrinski was executed for treason for his role in the attempted Croatian-Hungarian rebellion of 1664–1670.
  • 1789 – George Washington took the oath of office as the first President of the United States at Federal Hall in New York City.
  • 1939 – At the New York World's Fair, NBC, the first major broadcast network in the United States, inaugurated its regularly scheduled television service with a broadcast of U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt's opening day ceremonial address.
  • 1945 – World War II: As Allied forces were closing in on Berlin, Adolf Hitler and Eva Braun committed suicide in the Führerbunker after being married for one day.
  • 1948 – Twenty-one countries signed a charter in Bogotá, Colombia, establishing the Organisation of American States.
  • 1963 – The Bristol Bus Boycott was held in Bristol to protest the Bristol Omnibus Company's refusal to employ Black or Asian bus crews, drawing national attention to racial discrimination in the United Kingdom.
  • 1975 – North Vietnamese troops captured Saigon shortly after American forces ended its helicopter evacuation of U.S. citizens, South Vietnamese civilians and third country nationals from the city, ending the Vietnam War with the unconditional surrender of South Vietnam.
  • 1980 – Iranian Arab separatists captured the Iranian Embassy in London, beginning a six-day siege.
  • 1993 – CERN announced that the World Wide Web would be free to everyone.
  • 2004 – The New Yorker magazine posted an article and supporting pictures online, postdated May 10, detailing accounts of torture and abuse by American personnel of prisoners held at the Abu Ghraib prison in Baghdad, Iraq.
 
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